Saturday, October 9, 2021

Of the Gods

"Of the Gods" by Craig Bakey was published in The Dragon #29 (September, 1979), in which a system for designing a set of "Campaign Gods" is presented, distinct from the various mythos in Gods, Demi-Gods, & Heroes.

Illustration by David C. Sutherland III, possibly "Thunderfoot" the god of storms in battle with "Darquetue" the god of monsters

Bakey posits that the dominance of pantheons is cyclic, and that "beyond the gods are forces of immeasurable power who have long since ceased to care about the multiverse they fathered (sometimes called the old gods)".*

*these "old gods" are similar to the Old Ones as described in the D&D Immortals Set, by Frank Mentzer

According to Bakey's cosmology:
No one can be sure of the exact nature of the old gods but most interpretations describe them as 24 hyper-physical padrones which manifest themselves as coloured jewels of six different disciplines. It is assumed that the concepts of Law and Chaos originated in these jewels, as did the gods themselves.
The first discipline governs abstract relation—existence, relation, quantity, order, number, time, change and causation. These are the blue gems. The second, the purple gems, govern space, dimensions, form, motion and space in general. The greens govern matter, both organic, inorganic. Intellect is governed by the yellows, including the formation and communication of ideas. The fifth, the oranges govern volition, namely individual and intersocial volitions. The final discipline manifests itself as red gems that govern affections: personal, sympathetic, moral, religious and affections in general.

Craig Bakey, The Dragon #29 (September, 1979)

All gods have the following properties in common:
1. All abilities (strength, intelligence, etc.) equal 20
2. Magical resistance is at least 25%
3. Not affected by weapons of less than +2
4. All gods capable of gate (95%), polymorph self, tongues,* ESP, and astral ethereal travel

*an AD&D 1e 4th level clerical spell

Tables are provided to determine the following characteristics:
1. Status in the hierarchy* (+/- relations)
2. Alignment** and gender
3. Armor class and hit points
4. Portfolio
5. Extraordinary abilities and fantastic possessions
6. Chance of intervention
*one of the entries in the table is "Duptrmr Nrinh/Tulrt" an error introduced by the optical character recognition used to digitize the text.  I googled the term, to see whether anyone had figured it out, and google asked "Did you mean: Supreme Ring/Ruler".  I therefore realized that the entry must have read "Supreme Being/Ruler" and also surprisingly that one can use google to help decipher OCR errors...

**nine-point alignment system from the AD&D 1e Players Handbook is used

Naturally, I had to give the tables a spin.  Here is what I came up with:

Status in the hierarchy (55 on d%): God of the Inner Circle (no relations)
Alignment (72 on d%) and gender (91 on d%): Lawful neutral, female
Armor class and hit points (11 on d%); AC 3, hp 120

Gods of the Inner Circle may have two portfolios.
Roll d4 and  apply the following results:
1 - roll on P1 only, 2 - roll on P2 only, 3 or 4 - roll on each table.

I rolled a 1 on d4 (roll on Portfolio table 1 only): 44 on d%: Space

Those gods whose portfolios are determined on tables P1, P2, or P3, will have the powers of Wish (Limited or Full) over events concerning their respective portfolios as well as rulership over non-humanoid types governed therein.

Extraordinary abilities and fantastic possessions (3 rolls):
83 on d%: Fighter abilities (6 on 2d4): Lord 21st level
06 on d%: Minor artifact (roll on any miscellaneous magic table or rings): drums of panic
19 on d%: Armor/Shield

Chance of intervention (13 on 2d10): Sympathetic to cosmic affairs only

We therefore have a goddess of space, F21, LN, AC3, hp 120, with armor/shield and drums of panic, sympathetic to cosmic affairs only.  Certainly enough to get the creative juices flowing.  It would be interesting to randomly determine a whole pantheon, this way.

Sample Pantheon:

The author shares details of several deities he created for his home campaign in Toronto, heavily influenced by the works of Michael Moorcock:

The conflict began when the unholy armies of the Lord of Night secured the Astral Plane, banishing those inhabiting it and restricting travel. But as the Cosmic Balance began to tip, the Neutral Lords enlisted the aid of a group of strict lawful immortals and the struggle for supremacy was on.

Craig Bakey, The Dragon #29 (September, 1979)

Bakey's pantheon is divided into three houses, based on the OD&D three-alignment system.  They are described in more detail in his article, but also listed, here below:
1. The Commune of Codification (The White Lords of Law)
Telesm - the god of knowledge and patriarchs (the Ruler)
Trion - god of the seas and all #3’s
Lemus - The Protector, the god of animals
Thunderfoot - the god of storms
Battleace - the god of justice/art/poetry and music
Mobus - the god of movement/order/games (contests)
Dormamnu - the god of paradoxes and energy
Teala - the goddess of whimsy
Glimmer - the goddess of dreams/mind/thought
Presence - the god of all things that do not live, yet exist

2. "Areopagus" The Tribunal of Juste Milieu (Neutrality)

Chyron - the god of time and balance
Bscyen - (Nature)
The Grey Racer
Ardnha - the presence of swords and machines
Horus - the avenger*
*Horus is currently gaining power through the souls pledged to him by Opeius who wields the black blade—Cimmarian
3. The Caliginostic Disunionn (the Dark Gods of Chaos)
Darkwyon - the Dark Lord
Darquetue - the god of monsters
Tiffany - the goddess of entropy
Drue - the god of fools
Ado - the god of bile
Whisper - the god of forceful intervention
Kahn - lord of dragons
Magnar - the god of improbability
Quasiman - the goddess of black sorcerers

Bakey's article captures the spirit of OD&D campaigns as they were run in the days before the codification of AD&D and prepackaged campaign settings.  It would be extremely interesting to know whether any of his material still exists.


Bakey's article in The Dragon #29 was missing a title, a fact addressed by assistant editor Jake Jaquet a couple of issues later:

...we (the TSR Periodicals staff and our printer—we’ll share the blame this month) inadvertently dropped a title and a couple of bylines for articles that appeared in THE DRAGON #29. Our apologies. Now, here’s your chance to play editor: Take out your #2 robin’s-egg blue editing pencil and open your copy of TD #29 to pages 4 and 5—Craig Bakey’s article-pick a clear spot in the art and in big block letters write “Of The Gods.” That’s the title that should have been there. Circle it and spec it for 48 point Souvenir Bold type.

Jake Jaquet, from The Dragon #31 (November, 1979)

Saturday, October 2, 2021

Elementals and the Philosopher’s Stone

“Elementals and the Philosopher’s Stone” by Jeff Swycaffer was published in The Dragon #27 (July, 1979), in which Aristotelian concepts were drawn upon in order to expand the types of elementals in the OD&D game.

A brief video excerpt of Jeff Swycaffer's article "Elementals and the Philosopher's Stone" viewable here

The article includes a pattern for a 26-sided polyhedron, comprised of 18 square sides and 8 triangular ones, which can be cut out and assembled.  (I printed the page using a color printer, cut out the pattern, and folded it together using a glue stick.)

Swycaffer incorporates the four sensible properties relating to each of the four classical elements, as described in Aristotle's "On Generation and Corruption"

The classical elements and their sensible qualities, as described by Aristotle in his treatise "On Generation and Corruption".

In Swycaffer's scheme, the elemental axis is oriented perpendicular to the opposite poles of "good" and "evil", giving rise to eight qualities ("pleasure", "fertility", "beginning", and "light" adjacent to "good"; and "pain", "barren", "ending", and "darkness" adjacent to "evil").

The demons in "Eldritch Wizardry" are considered the elementals of evil, while angels as described in the article "Messengers of God: Angels in D&D" by Stephen H. Dorneman, published in The Dragon #17 (August, 1978) are considered the elementals of good.

In addition, statistics for twelve new and imaginative types of elementals are given, such as dryness elementals (appearing as a shimmering in the air, sucking moisture) or barren elementals (appearing as a normal human, blighting fields and spreading plagues).

Alchemical symbols for Earth and the seven classical planets

As an extra touch, the eight triangular sides of Swycaffer's polyhedron bear alchemical symbols for Earth and the seven classical planets.

Swycaffer wrote several articles for The Dragon between 1978 and 1988 (see the author index on Dragondex), and also became a writer of science fiction.

"Elementals and the Philosopher's Stone" was later mentioned by Gary Gygax in his column "From the Sorcerer's Scroll" in The Dragon #32 (December, 1979):

It is of interest to relate that just prior to the appearance of the excellent article “Elementals and the Philosopher’s Stone,” by Jeff Swycaffer (THE DRAGON #27, Vol. IV, No. 1, July 1979), Dave Sutherland and I were discussing the various Elemental Planes, concentrating on the borderland areas between them, i.e. where Water touches Air and Earth and where Fire touches Air and Earth.  Mr. Swycaffer’s ideas were good indeed, and if vapor is substituted for “moist” and dust is used to replace the term “dry/dryness,” you will have a good idea as to how the borderlands between Elemental Planes will be treated.  Naturally, the denizens of these regions, “paraelementals” (not to be confused with Fritz Leiber’s “paramentals”) and other things, will also add to the overall scope of the game.

The ethical/moral concepts of good and evil do not, I believe, properly belong to any treatment of the elemental area, per se.  But while there will be no “good” or “evil” elemental type, there certainly must be elementals of good or evil disposition to complement those of neutral bent.  Similarly, the attributes of barrenness and fertility, the conditions of pleasure and pain, and the states of beginning and end are not elemental in the sense of the term used in AD&D.  The presence or absence of light isn’t necessarily tied to the elemental principle either, although it is a very nice touch with respect to the polarity of the “Philosopher’s Stone.”

While certain of the precepts of Mr. Swycaffer’s article will be evident in treatments of the various Elemental Planes, the whole-will not be there.  This is mentioned so that Dungeon masters reading this article will be able to peruse these modules with the aim of understanding the methods by which rules and an overall scheme were selected and tied together to arrive at something similar, yet different, in AD&D.  If you have opinions which you wish to share with us, please drop me a line.  Better still, if you have what you believe is an outstanding treatment of one of the planes, why not submit it to TSR’s design department?*

Gary Gygax "From the Sorcerer's Scroll" in The Dragon #32 (December 1979)

*a letter by Steven Kienle was later published as part of the article "Elementary ideas for elemental adventuring" in Dragon #47 (March 1981)

Swycaffer's ideas would inform the concept of para-elemental planes as described in "Deities & Demigods" (1980), with "ice", "dust", "heat", and "vapour" substituted for "cold", "dryness", "heat", and "moisture".

Torus illustrating the relationship between the Elemental to the Paraelemental Planes, from Deities & Demigods (1980)

Later still, Gygax would describe the quasi-elemental planes of  "lightning", "mineral", "radiance", and "steam" adjacent to the positive material plane; and "ash", "dust", "salts", and "vacuum" adjacent to the negative material plane, in his article "The Inner Planes" in Dragon #73 (May, 1983).

Saturday, September 25, 2021

Wintercon VIII: The Ghost Tower of Inverness

Wintercon VIII, sponsored by the Metro Detroit Gamers, was held at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan in November, 1979.  The AD&D tournament was "The Ghost Tower of Inverness" by Allen Hammack.

Advertisement for Wintercon VIII in the Oakland University campus newspaper "The Oakland Sail" (November 12, 1979)

As with Origins 79, the tournament adventure was made available for sale at the convention, the second in a series of special numbered collector's editions (see this post at Wayne's Books for more details).

In the tournament version, the setting is an unnamed empire,* and the PCs are sent on their mission by the emperor, himself (as opposed to the Duke of Urnst in the subsequent, color version, published the following year).

*the cleric pregen, Zinethar the Wise, is described as the high priest of Osiris, in keeping with the pantheistic nature of Hammack's personal campaign world

(Also, check out this post on the Metal Miniatures blog for a look at painted miniatures used for each of the five pregens)

The dungeon map in the tournament version appears to be the same as in the subsequent, color version (see this post on Dyson Logos blog for more recent, VTT-friendly, versions)

Gaming Origins:

When tasked with writing the tournament adventure for Wintercon VIII, Hammack turned to a previously created dungeon as a starting point:

When my campaign started I had completed one dungeon and Inverness was underway (being built slightly ahead of the players’ explorations), but I was under time pressure to build a world to place them in. Using some techniques from wargame maps, I crammed in countries, rivers, and city names from three or four fantasy series that I was reading onto a large hex-grid posterboard and decided I’d fill in details on the countries and cities if and when players went there. I followed rough similarities to the books—the Witch World areas had a lot of female magic-users, for example.

(November 24, 2016)

There were deeper levels of the Inverness dungeon, not used in the published version.  Much of this material is now archived* in the Strong National Museum of Play in Rochester, New York.

*Hammack also collaborated upon a subsequent megadungeon inspired by Gormenghast, a part of which was allegedly used in "The Ghost Tower of Inverness" (according to this post on the Strong's website).  However, when I reached out to fact check this, Allen stated that "The Ghost Tower of Inverness" was drawn entirely from his Inverness dungeon, with some new parts

Sources of Inspiration:

In the same interview, Hammack discusses various sources of inspiration for the classic adventure, including the significance behind the name:

What was the greatest literary influence on Ghost Tower? Well, the name (and only the name, not the plot) was suggested by and a hat tip to a weird radio serial. As I’ve said before, it’s not related at all to the real city of Inverness in Scotland. I have always enjoyed time-travel stories, so inspiration was found in "The Time Machine", Bellamy’s "Looking Backward", Heinlein’s "The Door Into Summer", L’Engle’s "A Wrinkle In Time", Vonnegut's "Timequake", and Gerrold's "The Man Who Folded Himself". Cheesy though it was, I also liked the TV show "The Time Tunnel". I was not aware of Doctor Who at the time, but it’s now a favorite of mine.

(November 24, 2016)

The "weird radio serial" mentioned above was "The Fourth Tower of Inverness", a radio drama that aired on college radio stations from 1972-73.

Poster for "The Fourth Tower of Inverness" (1972) radio drama, which can be downloaded for listening at Moonlight Audio Theatre, here

According to the wikipedia entry, "The Fourth Tower of Inverness" is in reference to a farmhouse in Quebec, Canada named "Inverness" after the original home of the owner in Inverness, Scotland.

The time travel aspect of the adventure may have been suggested to Hammack by his involvement with the 4th Dimension board game, completed prior to his work on the tournament module.

A room involving a giant chessboard also appeared in the AD&D Masters Tournament dungeon "Doomkeep" at Gen Con XII in 1979 (see The Dragon #34).

For those interested, Hammack discusses "The Ghost Tower of Inverness" in an interview on Grogtalk (March 2, 2020) from 45:30 to 54:50

Sequels and Derivative Works:

"Return to the Ghost Tower of Inverness" (2003) by Creighton Broadhurst and Steve Pearce was released as part of the Living Greyhawk campaign in the d20 era.

A 4e adventure "March of the Phantom Brigade" (2011) by Rodney Thompson involved the Ghost Tower of Inverness.

A 5e adventure "Return to the Ghost Tower of Inverness" (2019) by Elisa Teague was released for the D&D Adventurers League.

Other Settings:

Like "White Plume Mountain", I feel that "The Ghost Tower of Inverness" has a B/X aesthetic, and could be run using the Expert Set rules.

The adventure can be situated anywhere within the Empire of Thyatis, possibly using the introduction from the tournament version involving the emperor, himself.

Saturday, September 18, 2021

T1: The Village of Hommlet

T1 "The Village of Hommlet" by Gary Gygax was TSR's tenth "Dungeon Module" (not counting the special collector's edition of "Lost Tamoachan"), and was originally made available for sale at Gen Con XII in August, 1979, (along with S2 "White Plume Mountain").

Full-page advertisement for module T1 "The Village of Hommlet" appearing in The Dragon #s 31-32 (November-December, 1979)

Like module B1 "In Search of the Unknown" and S2 "White Plume Mountain", T1 "The Village of Hommlet" wasn't based on a previous tournament adventure.  Bob Byrne recounts its gaming origins in a post on Black Gate, in 2017:
Gygax’ son and a friend were starting to play, so Gary used the Hommlet campaign as a new, low level adventure for them, distinguishing it from the high level Greyhawk play. Gygax was busy developing TSR products and the Greyhawk Supplement (I) had come out for the Original Rules.
The Hommlet campaign was different than the Greyhawk dungeon delves. There was a village, with a smithy, an inn, a local elder, set in a rural environment. The party could role play in the village then move on to the dungeons of the Temple. It’s possible that Gygax ran players through some iterations of Hommlet and the Temple in late 1975 and into 1976.
from Black Gate* (January 6, 2017)

*Byrne's article provides a comprehensive overview of the original Temple of Elemental Evil campaign, and is well worth a read.  (There are also links to several other articles on Black Gate regarding the Village of Hommlet and Temple of Elemental Evil).

Gygax set aside his DMing responsibilities in 1976 in order to work on the AD&D rulebooks, in addition to penning the first seven dungeon modules (the G series, the D series, and S1), before turning to the ambitious World of Greyhawk folio.

Modules S1, B1, and S2 included references to the World of Greyhawk, which was originally planned for release in early 1979.  Gygax provided even more details in module T1, rendering it a perfect starting place for campaigns in the soon-to-be-published setting. 

Siege of Bodenburg:

The first Gen Con was held back in 1968, where Gygax played The Siege of Bodenburg, a medieval miniatures wargame.  He subsequently used Bodenburg Castle to represent the ruined upper works of Greyhawk Castle, as well as the floorplan of the moathouse in module T1.

Schematic for Bodenburg Castle (left) and the map for the ruined moathouse from module T1 "The Village of Hommlet" (right).

The destruction of the moathouse as recounted in "The Village of Hommlet" was apparently based on the Siege of Bodenburg, and has been recreated as a Chainmail scenario "The Battle for the Moathouse" by Paul Stormberg.

The Temple of Elemental Evil:

T1 was re-released in 1981 as a color version, with new front and back cover art, although the promised T2 "The Temple of Elemental Evil" wasn't forthcoming.

After finishing T1, Gygax was approached by Brian Blume to write a replacement module for the Holmes Basic Set, which became B2 "The Keep on the Borderlands".  (Had Blume not done so, I wonder if Gygax would have instead written T2 "The Temple of Elemental Evil"?)

Without T2, I've posted elsewhere that B2 works well as a sequel to T1.  One could even continue with WG4 "The Forgotten Temple of Tharizdun" as a Gygaxian trilogy of sorts.

The Moathouse:

The cover to D&D accessory AC5 "Player Character Record Sheets" (1984) features an illustration by Clyde Caldwell depicting a group of adventurers approaching the ruined moathouse from T1 "The Village of Hommlet".

Painting by Clyde Caldwell depicting the ruined moathouse, used for the cover of AC5 "Player Character Record Sheets" (1984)

I corresponded with Caldwell back in 2010 about this illustration, at which time he kindly responded with some additional details:

The AC5 cover painting was actually the first cover I did after coming on staff at TSR.  It was done for another module called "The Moathouse".  The publication of "The Moathouse" was delayed for some reason and the cover painting was sidelined for a while.  I don't know if "The Moathouse" module was ever published, but I think not.  The painting was picked up for AC5 since it showed a variety of generic characters.  My title for the painting is still "The Moathouse".

Clyde Caldwell, 2010

According to this interview on the Random Wizard blog, Caldwell probably began working at TSR around July, 1983.  Given that it depicts a scene from T1, "The Moathouse" may have been intended for the cover of a combined module T1-2.

Sequels and Derivative Works:

Gygax's original manuscript for "The Temple of Elemental Evil" was ultimately completed by Frank Mentzer and published as T1-4 "The Temple of Elemental Evil" (1985), which I ran for my friends during our senior year in high school.

A novelization of the adventure "The Temple of Elemental Evil" by Thomas M. Reid was published in 2001, as part of the "Greyhawk Classics" series.

A sequel for 3e "Return to the Temple of Elemental Evil" by Monte Cook was released in 2001, set 15 years after the original adventure.

The Temple of Elemental Evil was also developed as a video game by Atari, in 2003.

Hackmaster published "The Temple of Existential Evil" by Brian Jelke in 2003.

"Return to the Moathouse" by Mike Mearls was released at the Origins Game Fair in 2008, and a 4e conversion of "The Village of Hommlet" by Andy Collins was published in 2009, and republished in Dungeon #212 (March, 2013).

Dragon #423 (May, 2013) included a "tavern profile" on the Inn of the Welcome Wench by Shawn Merwin, and Dragon #425 (July, 2013) featured articles on the history of "The Temple of Elemental Evil" by Skip Williams, and "The Anatomy of Elemental Evil" by Thomas M. Reid.

See also Jason B. Thompson's walkthrough map.

A "Dungeons & Dragons: Temple of Elemental Evil Board Game" was released by Wizards of the Coast in 2015.

Finally, a two-volume homage and 5e conversion was just released by Goodman Games as Original Adventures Reincarnated #6 (be sure to check out the recently posted unboxing video for a sneak peak at the contents).

The Deed of Paksenarrion:

It has been pointed out that "Divided Allegiance" (1988), the second book in "The Deed of Paksenarrion" by Elizabeth Moon contains many parallels to T1 "The Village of Hommlet" (as discussed in this post from The Mule Abides blog)

Saturday, September 11, 2021

S2: White Plume Mountain

S2 "White Plume Mountain" by Lawrence Schick was TSR's ninth "Dungeon Module" (not counting the special collector's edition of "Lost Tamoachan"), and was originally made available for sale at Gen Con XII in August, 1979, (along with T1 "The Village of Hommlet").

Full-page advertisement for module S2 "White Plume Mountain" appearing in The Dragon #30 (October, 1979)

As with module B1 "In Search of the Unknown", and unlike the modules preceding them, "White Plume Mountain" wasn't based on a tournament adventure.  Schick explains its unusual origins in an interview on Grognardia, back in 2009:

White Plume Mountain was written as a sample document to persuade TSR to hire me as a game designer. I just plundered all the dungeons I’d designed over the previous four years, took out the best bits, and cobbled it all together. It worked; TSR hired me, bought the scenario, and published it as a module without changing a word. I’m a little embarrassed to this day by Blackrazor, inasmuch as it’s such a blatant rip-off of Elric’s Stormbringer; I would not have put it into the scenario if I ever thought it might be published.

from Grognardia (May 16, 2009)

As a puzzle dungeon, "White Plume Mountain" is in a class of its own, although in the same vein as the AD&D Masters Tournaments held at Winter Fantasy II "The Quest for the Holy Grrale" (see The Dragon #22, pg 31) and Gen Con XII "Doomkeep" (see The Dragon #34).


Another similarity to module B1 "In Search of the Unknown" is the inclusion of geographic references to the forthcoming "World of Greyhawk" (1980) folio:

White Plume Mountain is located in the northeastern part of the Shield Lands, near the Bandit Kingdoms and the Great Rift (see WORLD OF GREYHAWK, available from TSR)

White Plume Mountain, 1979

The Shield Lands lie north of the Lake of Unknown Depths, the module stating that White Plume Mountain "stands alone in a vast area of dismal moors and tangled thickets".

The Known World:

Back in 2015, Schick shared the "secret history" of the D&D Known World (which ultimately became the Mystara setting).  Interestingly, the name of one of the "Thyatic" cities was borrowed for the villainous wizard in "White Plume Mountain":

Location of the city of Keraptis in the original "Known World" setting.  (I'm not certain what the circular map symbol to the northwest represents.)

Given Schick's long history of collaboration with Tom Moldvay, it's perhaps not surprising that "White Plume Mountain" has a strong B/X vibe, having more in common with adventures such as X2 "Castle Amber" than other AD&D modules.

Sequels and Derivative Works:

The original module was re-released in 1981 as a color version, with new front and back cover art (see also The Art of the Genre).  The new version included a now iconic full-page map of White Plume Mountain and its environs,* by Erol Otus.

*a writeup for Dragotha, the "undead dragon" was published in Dragon #134 (June, 1988)

A sequel for 2e "Return to White Plume Mountain" by Bruce R. Cordell was released in 1999 as part of D&D's 25th anniversary, set 20 years after the original.

Cordell also wrote an RPGA adventure "Dragotha's Lair" (1999).  Another adventure "Ex Keraptis Cum Amore" by Andy Miller was published in Dungeon #77 (November/December 1999).

The release of "Return to White Plume Mountain" coincided with a novelization "White Plume Mountain" (1999) by Paul Kidd.

A d20 version by Andy Collins, Gwendolyn F. M. Kestrel, and James Wyatt, using material from the "Weapons of Legacy" system, was published in 2005.  This was followed by a d20 supplement "Outside the Mountain is just as Dangerous as Inside" by Robert Wiese.

See also Jason B. Thompson's walkthrough map.

A 5e version was published in the "Tales from the Yawning Portal" collection (2017).

Other Settings:

White Plume Mountain is described as a volcanic hill, "which stands alone in a vast area of dismal moors and tangled thickets" about five miles from the nearest village. 

Possible location for White Plume Mountain in the Lands and Environs of the D&D Wilderness (map from D&D Expert Set (1983)

I'd situate the adventure in the Broken Lands in the Known World/Mystara setting, described in module X1 "The Isle of Dread" as "an area of rocky badlands and old volcanic lava beds".

Saturday, September 4, 2021

Origins 79: Lost Tamoachan

Origins 79, sponsored by Strategy and Fantasy World, was held at Widener College in Chester, Pennsylvania in June, 1979.  The AD&D tournament was "Lost Tamoachan: The Hidden Shrine of Lubaatum" by Harold Johnson and Jeff R. Leason.

Origins 79 as advertised in The Dragon #26 (June, 1979).

Con reports were published in The Dragon #29 (September, 1979) "Report on Origins '79" by Jim Ward and The Dragon #30 (October, 1979) "Origins: Chaos with a Happy Ending" by "Fantasysmith".

As with Origins 78, the tournament adventure was made available for sale at the convention, although as a numbered collector's edition as opposed to the monochrome version, published the following year (together with an 8-page illustration booklet).

Johnson envisioned three series of nine encounters each, one for each round of the tournament.  Leason provided additional ideas, and the adventure was playtested by the TSR design department prior to its finalization.

Sources of Inspiration:

Johnson minored in History, and had taken a course on Mesoamerican cultures.  He was inspired by mythical places, such as Tamoanchan, as well as archeological sites, such as Lubaantun in Belize and Palenque in the Yucatan.

Meeting Harold Johnson at Gary Con XI (March, 2019)

Johnson discusses the development of "Lost Tamoachan" in this interview on Grogtalk (January 17, 2021; from 02:57 to 03:09).  In it, he mentions a specific National Geographic article* as another source of inspiration.

*this may have been "China's Incredible Find" in the April, 1978 issue, which contains the painting of a room in a Chinese emperor's tomb.  The photograph appears to have been used in turn by Jeff Dee as the basis for illustration #9 in the illustration booklet (see this post)

Sequels and Derivative Works:

Hackmaster published "The Hidden Shrine" by Paul Glozeris in 2003.

Lost Tamoachan reappeared in "The Sea Wyvern's Wake" by Richard Pett in Dungeon #141 (December, 2006), an adventure in the "Savage Tide" adventure path for 3e.

A 4e version by Stephen Radney-MacFarland was published in 2011 and reprinted in Dungeon #209 (December, 2012).

A 5e version was published in the "Tales from the Yawning Portal" collection (2017).

Finally, in 2019, Johnson himself released "Return to Tamoanchan".

Other Settings:

The original adventure was shoehorned into the World of Greyhawk, but also fits well in the Savage Coast setting on Mystara, as discussed in this thread on the Piazza.

Site of the lost city of Risilvar in the Forbidden Highlands of Orc's Head Peninsula, from module X9 "The Savage Coast", a fitting location for the Hidden Shrine of Tamoachan.

The description for the lost city of Risilvar takes up less than two pages in module X9, with very little detail regarding the central Mesoamerican-style temple.

Saturday, July 24, 2021

JG 113: The Book of Treasure Maps

"The Book of Treasure Maps" is a collection of 5 mini-dungeons published by Judges Guild, written and illustrated by Jennell Jaquays, for use with D&D.

Cover to JG 113 "The Book of Treasure Maps" (1979) by Jennell Jaquays.  The cover photograph is discussed in this interview on Grogtalk (July 6, 2021; starting at 02:08:26)

Four of the scenarios are explicitly situated in the Judges Guild "Wilderlands of High Fantasy" setting, while the fifth is generic.

Although recommended levels are not provided, I would regard these as intermediate level adventures, appropriate for character levels 5-9.*

*the adventures "are of varying difficulty, for characters ranging between first and tenth levels" in "Tips from the Tower" from Judges Guild Journal #18 (December 1979/January 1980)

As with "The Caverns of Thracia", the first three of the five scenarios include rumor tables.

The Lost Temple:

"The Lost Temple" is located on Campaign Map #10: Lenap, from JG 67 "The Fantastic Wilderlands Beyonde"

An ancient temple, hidden deep within the jungle, is described.  The Eldritch Wizardry supplement is referenced.

The Tomb of Aethering the Damned:

"The Tomb of Aethering the Damned" is located on Campaign Map #9: Elphand Lands, from JG 67 "The Fantastic Wilderlands Beyonde"

A tomb, hidden behind a mountain waterfall, is described.  (See this review from 2015 for discussion on this adventure).

The Lone Tower:

"The Lone Tower" is located in the Forest of the Crying Wood, on Campaign Map #4: Tarantis, from JG 48 "Wilderlands of High Fantasy"

Also known as Clearmoon Castle, this is a phenomenal adventure.

Selena, Lady Clearmoon

For years, I've searched for something appropriate to use for the ruins of Wereskalot on the map of the Grand Duchy of Karameikos from the 1981 Expert Set.

"The Lone Tower" has a resonant B/X vibe, and is the perfect fit.

Willchidar's Well:

"Willchidar's Well" is located on Campaign Map #12: Isles of the Blest, from JG 92 "Wilderlands of the Magic Realm"

A page from "Missionary Tidings of the Church of the Holy One"

An imprisoned demon lord is described, making this one of the tougher adventures.

The Crypts of Arcadia:

Like "The Caverns of Thracia" this adventure is not located on the Judges Guild world, although would fit well in the Empire of Thyatis in the Known World/Mystara setting.

"The Crypts of Arcadia" are designed as a living, not a static, dungeon.  Both encounters and room contents are randomly determined.

Concluding Thoughts:

Jaquays departed Judges Guild shortly after completing "The Book of Treasure Maps", having worked there for only one year.

See this review from 2017, for more discussion on "The Book of Treasure Maps"

Judges Guild went on to publish JG 320 "The Book of Treasure Maps II" (1980) and JG 990 "The Book of Treasure Maps III" (1982).

Saturday, July 17, 2021

JG 102: The Caverns of Thracia

"The Caverns of Thracia" was the first in a series of dungeon adventures published by Judges Guild, written and illustrated by Jennell Jaquays, for use with D&D, (followed by "The Book of Treasure Maps").

Full-page advertisement for JG 102 "The Caverns of Thracia" appearing in The Dungeoneer #16 (March/April, 1980).

Originally designed for characters of the 1st and higher levels, its re-release for the d20 system/3.5 in 2004 by Necromancer Games was for characters of 3rd-8th level.

A rumour table "The Taverns of Thracia" is presented in the style of module B1 "In Search of the Unknown" (published by TSR several months earlier).

Jaquays has explained that her intent was to create a scenario using "beast men" (gnolls, lizard men, jackalweres, and minotaurs) as opposed to orcs/goblinoids.

The four level dungeon, including a massive underground cavern, is a landmark of three-dimensional design, and years ahead of its time.

AD&D vs. D&D:

Jacquays had just completed "Dark Tower", the first Judges Guild adventure approved for use with AD&D.  "The Caverns of Thracia" was to be the second.

After much of the work had already been completed, approval for Judges Guild to publish adventures for use with AD&D was apparently rescinded.

This necessitated some adjustments (such as changing jackalweres to "dog brothers"*) although certain AD&Disms persisted (the 9-point alignment system is used).

*one could substitute lupins for dog brothers if running BECMI

Spell progression is per OD&D, although a few spells (such as animate dead) are taken from the 1e Players Handbook.  (There is also a gnome illusionist).

Greek Mythology:

In the Caverns of Thracia there exists a religion that may not exist elsewhere.  These are the worshippers of Thanatos, the death god or as he is currently called "The Dark One".

Notes for the Judge, The Caverns of Thracia

In addition to a death god inspired by Thanatos,* other gods of Greek mythology are mentioned, including Zeus, Athena, and Apollo.

*there is a powerful immortal in the Sphere of Entropy in the Mystara setting also named Thanatos

Jaquays describes a new monster "The Incarnation of Death", an actual, albeit minor, physical manifestation of Thanatos, the death god.


The only time I ran "The Caverns of Thracia", the entire party was massacred in our second session, (as recounted in this campaign journal).

Using "The Caverns of Thracia" in the Known World:

This adventure is not specifically located on the Judges Guild world.  It can be, but it is not.  Suggested areas for its location would include: A large, misted, off-shore island, possibly once connected via landbridge to the mainland; A ruined city near the edge of a subtropical forest; A ruined city on the edge of a mountain or in large, forsaken hills.

Notes for the Judge, The Caverns of Thracia

As mentioned in the campaign journal, above, the Empire of Thyatis in the Known World/Mystara setting is a fitting location for "The Caverns of Thracia".

The Greek references work particularly well, given the Byzantine inspiration behind the Empire of Thyatis.

In fact, beginning with "Morkendaine", continuing with "The Caverns of Thracia", and concluding with "Dark Tower" would make for an epic, all-Jaquays campaign.

Saturday, July 10, 2021

JG 88: Dark Tower

With the expansion of the Empire and the extension of her protection to other, less ominous trade routes, Redmoon Pass has become frequented only by ignorant, wayward or weather-driven travellers who fear the whim of the elements more than they dread the terror of old legends. Situated centrally in the pass, the tiny village of Mitra's Fist appears to be a haven from the many storms that stalk wayfarers in the high mountain reaches. Even so, the wise and knowing do their best to avoid Mitra's Fist, better known as "Mitra's Curse".

The History, Dark Tower

"Dark Tower" is a 70-page adventure for 6-8 characters of 7th-11th level by Jennell Jaquays, the first adventure published by Judges Guild approved for use with AD&D.

Ranked among the 30 "Greatest Adventures of All Time" in Dungeon #116 (November, 2004), "Dark Tower" was also nominated for the 1979 H.G. Wells award for Best Roleplaying Adventure.

Full-page advertisement for JG 88 "Dark Tower" appearing in The Dungeoneer #11 (May/June, 1979)

The village of Mitra's Fist is described, as well as a sprawling four-level dungeon, complete with wandering monster tables.

Beneath the village, and interconnected with the dungeon, are the White Tower of Mitra, and the eponymous Dark Tower of Set.

Jaquays includes several minor artifacts, in addition to some memorable new monsters, the "Lions of Mitra" and "Sons of Set"*

*a possible inspiration or precursors to the yuan ti, from module I1: "Dwellers of the Forbidden City" (1981) by David Cook


Like Morkendaine, this adventure was published after the AD&D 1e Monster Manual and Players Handbook were released, but before the AD&D 1e Dungeon Masters Guide was available.

The Hyborian Age:

"Dark Tower" involves a centuries-long conflict between the forces of the Lawful Good deity Mitra and the god of Evil, Set.

Deities from "Robert E. Howard's Hyborea" in OD&D supplement IV: Gods, Demigods & Heroes (1976)

Both Mitra and Set, as well as the Lawful god Asura (from "Morkendaine"), appear in the Hyborian Age stories of Robert E. Howard.*

*Jaquays specifically cites the Conan story "Red Nails" as the major inspiration for "Dark Tower" in this interview on Grogtalk (July 6, 2021)

"Dark Tower" also uses the Minions of Set (described in the section on "Egyptian Mythology" from Gods, Demigods & Heroes).

The goddess Ishtar is mentioned as a patron goddess in "Dark Tower", and is likewise listed as a "Hyborean" deity in Gods, Demigods & Heroes.

Wilderlands of High Fantasy:

The original version of "Dark Tower" mentions an Empire, but makes only passing reference to the Invincible Overlord.

The module was re-released for the d20 system/3e in 2001 by RPG Realms.

Additional information explicitly situating the adventure within the Wilderlands of High Fantasy was included in a subsequent d20/3.5e version, JG3: Dark Tower (2007) by Jennell Jaquays and Greg Geilman.

Goodman Games recently announced the upcoming release of an homage and conversion to D&D 5e and Dungeon Crawl Classics.

Using "Dark Tower" in The Known World:

The continental setting introduced in module X1: "The Isle of Dread" (1981) became "The Known World" of the Gazetteers, and ultimately "Mystara".

A portion of the continental map from module X1: "The Isle of Dread" (1981)

With its pulpy roots, the Known World presents an excellent setting for "Dark Tower", somewhere in the mountains between the Empire of Thyatis and the Emirate(s) of Ylaruam.*

*Thyatis is a fitting location for the Roman mystery religion of Mithraism, while Ylaruam could possess Egyptian-style ruins for the cult of Set.

I would suggest locating the village of Mitra's Fist within Redmoon Pass along a seldom-used trade route across the Altan Tepe Mountains.

Saturday, July 3, 2021


"Morkendaine" is a 16-page dungeon for 1st and 2nd level characters by Jennell Jaquays, published in The Dungeoneer #9 (January-February, 1979).

"Morkendaine" by Jennell Jaquays, from The Dungeoner #9 (January-February, 1979)

An abandoned manor house and its cellars are described, as well as the two-level dungeon beneath.  A new monster, the shadow giant, is included.

The Lawful god Asura is loosely based on the Hyborian Age deity mentioned in Robert E. Howard's "The Hour of the Dragon" also appearing in Gods, Demigods & Heroes.

Many of Jaquays' classic design elements are apparent, with enough interesting material for several game sessions.

Illustration for "Morkendaine" by Jennell Jaquays, published in The Dungeoneer #11 (used for the cover of JG 93 "Under the Storm Giant's Castle")


The adventure was published after the AD&D 1e Monster Manual and Players Handbook were released, but before the AD&D 1e Dungeon Masters Guide was available.

Many of the monsters are drawn from the AD&D 1e Monster Manual, and various spells are likewise taken from the AD&D 1e Players Handbook.

A base AC 10 and specific armor types from the AD&D 1e Players Handbook are used, in addition to the nine-point alignment system.

The Dungeoneer:

Jaquays also incorporated material from earlier issues of The Dungeoneer, including gremlins from The Dungeoneer #1, Circean non-magical potions from The Dungeoneer #2, and vorpal bunnies from The Dungeoneer #4.

Underworld Oracle:

Underworld Oracle was a short-lived D&D fanzine published in the UK.  Jaquays makes reference to "On the Rack" by Low Nisbet, an article published in Underworld Oracle #5, which provided mechanics for torture.

Saturday, June 26, 2021

Michicon VIII: Escape from Astigar's Lair

"Escape from Astigar's Lair" was the tournament dungeon for the Metro Detroit Gamers' Michicon VIII Gamefest, held June 1-3, 1979 at Oakland University, Rochester MI.

JG 124 "Escape from Astigar's Lair" (1980) by Allen V. Pruehs and Ree Moorhead Pruehs.  Cover illustration by Kevin Siembieda.

The scenario was designed for two players using druid and ranger pregens with a 60-minute time limit, in the vein of the earlier "Quest for the Fazzlewood" tournament dungeon.

Although the AD&D 1e DMs Guide wouldn't be available until Gen Con XII in August, 1979, the previous two AD&D volumes are required to run this adventure.*

*some of the monsters used are from the AD&D 1e Monster Manual, and the two pregens are statted as per the AD&D 1e Players Handbook:

Dainer the Druid

uses AD&D 1e Dexterity bonus

uses AD&D 1e Players Manual for spell progression and includes two 1st level spells not appearing in Eldritch Wizardry (Pass Without Trace and Shillelagh)

Therain the Ranger

*uses Greyhawk (not AD&D) Strength bonus to hit/damage

uses AD&D 1e Players Manual for spell progression (1 druidic, 1 magic-user) and includes a 1st level magic-user spell not appearing in OD&D/Greyhawk (Feather Fall)

tracking percentages also based on the AD&D ranger description

Illustration by Kevin Siembieda, from "Escape from Astigar's Lair"

Conventions Used:

"Escape from Astigar's Lair" introduces a few notable conventions.

In terms of initiative, a d6 is rolled for the two-member party and another is rolled for the monsters.  Highest roll goes first, as per group initiative in Moldvay (published in 1981).

Combat is also divided into sequences (missile fire/spells, movement, melee) similar to that in Moldvay (where movement precedes missile fire/spells and melee).

A system for critical hits and fumbles is also described (as in "The Dragon Crown").

Natural 20s result in double damage (for both players and monsters) and if a player rolls a natural 1, they must make a Dexterity check on a d20 or fumble (weapon takes 1 melee round to recover).

Saturday, June 19, 2021

Wintercon VII: Quest for the Fazzlewood

"Quest for the Fazzlewood" was the tournament dungeon for the Metro Detroit Gamers' WinterCon VII Gamefest, held December 1-3, 1978 at Oakland University, Rochester MI.

Update (Jun 26, 2021): see campus newspaper "The Oakland Sail(December 4, 1978) pgs 8-9 for a con report by Ree Moorhead, co-author of "Escape from Astigar's Lair"

"Quest for the Fazzlewood" (December, 1978) by John and Laurie Van De Graaf.  Cover depicting an ogre seated beside a gong (the first encounter in the dungeon) illustrated by Gregg DeCesare.

The scenario was designed to be played by a single competitor using a thief pregen with a 30-minute time limit, in an attempt to better standardize tournament scoring.

John Van De Graaf, together with MDG chairman Paul Wood, is also known for the early D&D fanzine the Ryth Chronicle (1976-77), "a summary of adventures along the River Ryth", in which Wood played a magic-user named Fazzle.*

*see also D&D In the News (1976): Fazzle on the Ryth at "Playing at the World"

The Van De Graafs, along with other members of the Metro Detroit Gamers (including Wood), were acknowledged in the WinterCon V version of "The Lost Caverns of Tsojconth" (1976).

O1: The Gem and the Staff:

"Quest for the Fazzlewood" was later revised and expanded as part of module O1 "The Gem and the Staff" (1983), a "one-on-one" adventure designed to be run by a DM for a single player, using an 8th level thief pregen, "Eric the Bold".

The first adventure "Tormaq's Tower" is new, and involves the heist of a gem from a wizard's tower.  The second adventure "The Staff of Fazzlewood" is based on the map and encounters in "Quest for the Fazzlewood".

The player's background in the first adventure mentions an "Imperial Guard" and so I situated both adventures within the Empire of Thyatis (the wizards didn't seem high enough level to be Alphatian) when I ran these for my friends, back in the day.

Saturday, June 12, 2021

Pacific Encounters 78: The Dragon Crown

Gen Con West (aka Pacific Encounters) 78 was held at the Villa Hotel, San Mateo, California from September 2-4, 1978.  It was the third and final Gen Con West, followed by Pacificon in 1979.  The D&D tournament was "The Dragon Crown".

The Villa Hotel, San Mateo, California, site of the Pacific Encounters gaming convention in 1978 (the hotel was closed in 2005).

"The Dragon Crown" was designed by Michael Mayeau and published by Judges Guild as the "Collectors Edition of the 1978 Pacific Encounters Contest Dungeon" (Mayeau would go on to write other adventures and supplements for Judges Guild).

JG 76 "The Dragon Crown" (1979) by Michael Mayeau.  Cover illustration by Jennell Jaquays (a recreation of the original, which was temporarily lost in the mail).

In the scenario, the party inadvertently stumbles into a red dragon's lair.  Rather than incinerating them, the dragon gives them four hours to retrieve a powerful magic item stolen by a nearby tribe of kobolds, the "Dragon Crown".

*the combination of a red dragon with a tribe of kobolds is also seen in module B5 "Horror on the Hill" (1983) by Douglas Niles

As with previous Gen Con tournament dungeons, the D&D tournament for Pacific Encounters 78 was run using OD&D + Greyhawk:
The Vol. I, II, III, and Greyhawk rules must be used.  I realize the Advanced D&D is out, but it was not at the time this contest was designed, and was only newly out when it was run at Pacific Encounters.
Michael Mayeau, The Dragon Crown

Mayeau includes a list of tournament rules, such as bandaging wounds to recover 1-4 hit points (only possible once per day), ability score checks for opening secret doors (intelligence) and understanding traps (wisdom), and a system for critical hits and fumbles.

I haven't played or run "The Dragon Crown", although might consider doing so as a one shot.  It could be used in a campaign for a low-level party, introduced as a seemingly abandoned cave while traveling in the wilderness.

The adventure includes 12 pregenerated characters, ranging in levels from 1-4 (including a paladin from Greyhawk, a druid from Eldritch Wizardry, an illusionist from The Strategic Review #4, and a healer from The Dragon #3).

Saturday, June 5, 2021

Krakeland Marsh

Scum Swamp (formerly "Krakeland Marsh") is a mini-wilderness setting for OD&D, created by Jennell Jaquays back in 1977.  It includes a dungeon as well as suggested locations for four mini-dungeons, published previously in her fanzine "The Dungeoneer".

Like the "Dungeon Master's Kits" released by Wee Warriors and material by Judges Guild, the mini-dungeons appearing in "The Dungeoneer" predate the earliest modules released by TSR, and are filled with untamed possibilities of the original game.

Map of Castle Krake and Slime Swamp, originally published in "The Dungeoneer" #6 (October, 1977)

F'Chelrak's Tomb:

"F'Cherlak's Tomb" (location P) is a mini-dungeon by Jennell Jaquays, originally published in "The Dungeoneer" #1 (June, 1976).  It's intended for intermediate to high level characters.

The adventure uses new monsters (gremlins) described in the same issue, as well as monsters from "Blackmoor" (kopoacinth), and a relic (as per "Eldritch Wizardry").

Merlin's Garden:

"The Fabled Garden of Merlin" (location N) is a mini-dungeon by Merle Davenport, originally published in "The Dungeoneer" #2 (September, 1976).

While not as lethal as "F'Cherlak's Tomb", the scenario still represents a challenge for intermediate level characters.

The adventure uses new monsters (wax golems) described in the previous issue, as well as monsters from The Strategic Review #3 (ghost) and "Eldritch Wizardry" (demon).

Borshak's Lair:

"Borshak's Lair" (location R) is a mini-dungeon by Jennell Jaquays and Mark Hendricks, with Randy Cox, originally published in "The Dungeoneer" #3 (December, 1976).

*for discussion regarding the upcoming 5e conversion of "Borshak's Lair", see this interview (at 34:00) on Wandering DMs (April 10, 2021)

Jaquays designed this mini-dungeon specifically for low level characters, in response to feedback concerning the previous two adventures.

The adventure makes reference to material from "Greyhawk", "Blackmoor", The Strategic Review #3, and "Alcohol in D&D" from "The Dungeoneer" #2.

Pharoah's Tomb:

"The Pharoah's Tomb" (location Q) is a mini-dungeon by Jim Ward, originally published in "The Dungeoneer" #4 (March, 1977), and intended for intermediate to high level characters.

The premise seems potentially inspired by The Tomb of Ra-Hotep, and references "Gods, Demigods & Heroes" (co-authored by Ward).

Night of the Walking Wet:

"Night of the Walking Wet" is a two-part adventure by Jennell Jaquays, Randy Cox, and Tamara Wieland, originally published in The Dungeoneer #5 (June, 1977) and #6 (October, 1977).  

The adventure was re-issued as part of "The Dungeoneer Revisited Reflections by Jennell Jaquays & Night of the Walking Wet (Original and Reloaded)" by NTRPG in 2017.

The scenario is intended for intermediate to high level characters, and uses material from "Blackmoor", "Eldritch Wizardry", The Strategic Review #3, and "The Dungeoneer" #2.

JG 73 "The Adventuresome Compendium" reprinting the contents of "The Dungeoneer" #1-6

The Dungeoneer:

The Dungeoneer #1-6 was published quarterly from June, 1976 to October, 1977.  Jaquays sold the fanzine to Chuck Anshell, who produced issues #7 (March/April, 1978) and #8 (May/June, 1978), before it was purchased by Judges Guild.*

*see History of the Dungeoneer Fanzine from the Acaeum

Judges Guild published a compendium of issues #1-6 (JG 73) followed by The Dungeoneer #9 (JG 81) in January/February, 1979 and The Dungeoneer #10 (JG 84) in March/April, 1979, also re-issuing The Dungeoneer #7 (JG 85) and The Dungeoneer #8 (JG 86).

The Dungeoneer #9-18 was published bimonthly by Judges Guild from January/February, 1979 to July/August, 1980, after which it merged with Judges Guild Journal, starting with The Dungeoneer #19/Judges Guild Journal #22 (August/September, 1980).

The newly branded "Dungeoneer Journal" #23-25 was published bimonthly from October/November, 1980 to February/March, 1981; making way for Judges Guild's "Pegasus" #1-12, published bimonthly from April/May, 1981 to February/March, 1983.

Sunday, May 30, 2021

Lost Civilizations

J. Eric Holmes, editor of the original Basic Set (1977), wrote a "fantasy supplement" to the "Source of the Nile" board game (published as "Lost Civilizations: A Fantasy Supplement for Source of the Nile" in The Dragon #24):

The game gives a vivid feel for the danger and excitement of exploration in the nineteenth century. What it was missing, I thought, were the kind of encounters that Allan Quartermain or Lord Greystoke would have had under similar circumstances. So, for the fantasy fans, like myself, who enjoy the game but would like to have the kind of adventures one would find in the works of H. Rider Haggard or Edgar Rice Burroughs, and with all respect for Maker and Wesely’s fine game, I offer the Fantasy Supplement: Lost civilization in Source of the Nile.

J. Eric Holmes, The Dragon #24

Holmes was a lifelong fan of the works of Edgar Rice Burroughs (he even got the chance to meet Burroughs while both were living in Hawaii, at which time Burroughs autographed his copy of "Tarzan and the Leopard Men").

Holmes later wrote an authorized Burroughs pastiche "Mahars of Pellucidar" (1976), followed by a sequel "Red Axe of Pellucidar" which was never published, (although we may see a posthumous release in the near future).

Cover to The Dragon #24 (April, 1979).  Illustration by "Elrohir", a pseudonym used by artist Kenneth Rahman.

I was scheduled to play "Source of the Nile" with none other than Ross Maker at Gary Con XII, before it got canceled, and so signed up for a virtual session as part of Virtual Gary Con XII.  Our host used Holmes' rules for lost civilizations, which greatly enhanced the game.

Further Reading:

English novelist H. Rider Haggard is widely credited as the originator of the "lost world" genre.  Much of his work is in the public domain, accessible on Project Gutenberg:

King Solomon's Mines (1885), downloadable here
She: A History of Adventure (1887), downloadable here

Haggard went on to write several more stories involving Allan Quatermain (from "King Solomon's Mines") and Ayesha, or "She who must be obeyed".

"Tarzan and the Ancient City" by Milan Fibiger, from the portfolio "Tarzan as Art" (2007).

Edgar Rice Burroughs, the "master of the pulps" owes a literary debt to Haggard, and was a naturally gifted storyteller, influencing countless other writers (including Robert E Howard).

Burroughs' "Tarzan" tales* are filled with lost cities, such as Opar, forgotten outpost of sunken Atlantis, and the twin cities of Cathne, City of Gold, and Athne, City of Ivory.

*the Tarzan novels are presently being re-issued as part of the Edgar Rice Burroughs Authorized Library, complete with extras and stunning painted covers by Joe Jusko.